Main NCFA Website

Data collection

To assess the probability of disruption risk users also require location-specific data on the current state of natural capital assets and the drivers of environmental change that affect them. Inventories of all available data relevant to natural capital assets and drivers of environmental change at a global level were compiled. Data sources were gathered from a combination of general internet searches, scientific literature reviews, and previous UNEP-WCMC projects, using key words. International and national organisations, and authors of scientific publications, were contacted for further information where necessary.

A number of screening criteria, such as update frequency and temporal coverage, were recorded for each dataset to enable financial institutions to assess the suitability and robustness for decision making. These criteria were drawn from previous data inventories compiled by UNEP-WCMC for national and international projects on natural capital assessments and accounting. In particular, spatial datasets showing changes in the state or variability of natural capital assets or changes in the severity of drivers were identified where possible as these allow users to understand the risk of disruption to ecosystem service provision.

The following datasets are included in ENCORE:

Natural capital asset/Driver of changeData sourceData descriptionLink
Natural capital assetAtmosphereMerraClim BIO4 (temperature seasonality) and BIO15 (precipitation seasonality) max for 2000s 2.5 arc-min resolutionPrecipitation seasonality in 2000shttps://datadryad.org//resource/doi:10.5061/dryad.s2v82
Natural capital assetAtmosphereMerraClim BIO4 (temperature seasonality) and BIO15 (precipitation seasonality) max for 2000s 2.5 arc-min resolutionTemperature seasonality in 2000shttps://datadryad.org//resource/doi:10.5061/dryad.s2v82
Natural capital assetAtmosphereTerraClim Wind Speed 1958 to 2017 4km resolutionChange in wind speed from 1958 to 2017.http://www.climatologylab.org/terraclimate.html
Driver of changeDiseasesNot availableNot availableNot available
Driver of changeDroughtsAqueduct Global Maps 2.1 Drought Severity 1901–2008 1 degree resolutionDrought severity estimates the average of the length times the dryness of droughts from 1901 to 2008. Drought is defined as a continuous period where soil moisture remains below the 20th percentile length is measured in months, and dryness is the number of percentage points below the 20th percentile.http://www.wri.org/resources/data-sets/aqueduct-global-maps-21-data
Driver of changeEarthquakesGlobal Seismic Hazard MapSeismic Hazard Maps depict the level of chosen ground motions that likely will, or will not, be exceeded in a given time span. Hazard assessment programs commonly specify a 10% chance of exceedence (or a 90% chance of non-exceedance) of a ground motion parameter for an exposure time of 50 years corresponding to a return period of 475 years. The Seismic Hazard Data describes the peak ground acceleration (PGA, ms-2).http://gmo.gfz-potsdam.de
Driver of changeFireGlobal Fire Density 1997-2010This dataset includes an average of fires density over the period 1997-2010. It is based on the modified algorithm 1 product of World Fire atlas (WFA, ESA-ESRIN) dataset. UNEP/GRID-Europe compiled the monthly data and processed the global fire density. Unit is expected average number of event per 0.1 decimal degree pixel per year multiplied by 100 (e.g. 64 value means 0.64 events per year) and slightly smoothed.http://preview.grid.unep.ch/index.php?preview=data&events=fires&evcat=3&lang=eng
Driver of changeFloodingAqueduct Global Maps 2.1 Flood Occurrence 1985–2001Flood occurrence is a count of the number of floods recorded from 1985-2011.http://www.wri.org/resources/data-sets/aqueduct-global-maps-21-data
Driver of changeLandslidesFrequency of landslides caused by earthquakes and precipitationThis dataset includes an estimate of the annual frequency of landslide triggered by precipitations and earthquakes. It depends on the combination of trigger and susceptibility defined by six parameters: slope factor, lithological (or geological) conditions, soil moisture condition, vegetation cover, precipitation and seismic conditions. Unit is expected annual probability and percentage of pixel of occurrence of a potentially destructive landslide event x 1000000.http://preview.grid.unep.ch/index.php?preview=data&events=landslides&evcat=2&lang=eng
Driver of changeHabitat modificationLand use harmonisation v2 Transitions dataset - High scenario 850-2015Gain and loss in agricultural, forested and urban areas from 850 to 2015http://luh.umd.edu/data.shtml
Natural capital assetHabitatsLocal biodiversity intactness index - PREDICTSThe variable plotted Biodiversity Intactness Index is the modeled average abundance of originally-present species, relative to their abundance in an intact ecosystem.http://data.nhm.ac.uk/dataset/global-map-of-the-biodiversity-intactness-index-from-newbold-et-al-2016-science/resource/8531b4dc-bd44-4586-8216-47b3b8d60e85
Driver of changeHuman modification of genetic materialNot availableNot availableNot available
Driver of changeHuman movementNot availableNot availableNot available
Driver of changeIndustrial or domestic activitiesGlobal Shipping Activity for commercial shipping tracks from WMO VOS ProgramRepresentation of commercial shipping tracks for ships participating in the WMO Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS) program. 1-km gridded dataset. The grid identifies ship tracks within the top 5% of shipping intensity globally.http://datasets.wri.org/dataset/shipping-activity
Driver of changeIndustrial or domestic activitiesSocioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC)Change in population density from 2000 to 2015.http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/set/gpw-v4-population-density-rev10/data-download
Driver of changeIndustrial or domestic constructionGlobal Human Footprint change from 1993 to 2009 - Extent of built environments changeDifference in the extent of built environments from 1993 to 2009https://wcshumanfootprint.org/
Driver of changeIntensive agriculture and aquacultureGlobal Aquaculture Production by country - FAO,Difference in production volume and value by species country or area, fishing area and culture aquatic, environment.http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/global-aquaculture-production/en
Driver of changeIntensive agriculture and aquacultureLand use harmonisation v2 Transitions dataset - High scenario 850-2015 - crop harvestsGain and loss in agricultural area from 850 to 2015,http://luh.umd.edu/data.shtml
Driver of changeInvasive speciesGlobal Invasive Species Database by countryNumber of invasive species per countryhttp://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/
Natural capital assetLand geomorphologyWorld Ecological Facets Landform ClassesClassification of land geomorphologyhttp://www.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=cd817a746aa7437cbd72a6d39cdb4559
Natural capital assetMineralsNot availableNot availableNot available
Driver of changeOcean acidificationBenjamin Halpern, Melanie Frazier, John Potapenko, Kenneth Casey, Kellee Koenig et al. 2015. Cumulative human impacts: raw stressor data (2008 and 2013). Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity. doi:10.5063/F1S180FS.,Ocean acidification 2013https://knb.ecoinformatics.org/#view/doi:10.5063/F19Z92TW
Driver of changeOcean current & circulation,Not available,Not available,Not available
Natural capital assetOcean geomorphologyNot availableNot availableNot available
Driver of changeOverfishingGlobal Fisheries Production by country - FAODifference in the volume of aquatic species caught by country or area, by species items, by FAO major fishing areas, and year, for all commercial, industrial, recreational and subsistence purposes. The harvest from mariculture, aquaculture and other kinds of fish farming is also included.
Driver of changeOverharvestingNot availableNot availableNot available
Driver of changeOverhuntingNot availableNot availableNot available
Driver of changePestsNot availableNot availableNot available
Driver of changePollutionBenjamin Halpern, Melanie Frazier, John Potapenko, Kenneth Casey, Kellee, Koenig et al. 2015. Cumulative human impacts: raw stressor data (2008 and 2013). Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity. doi:10.5063/F1S180FS. - Ocean and inorganic pollution.Difference in inorganic and ocean pollution from 2008 to 2013http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/global-production/en
Driver of changePopulation changesNot availableNot availableNot available
Driver of changeSea level riseBenjamin Halpern, Melanie Frazier, John Potapenko, Kenneth Casey, Kellee Koenig, et al. 2015. Cumulative human impacts: raw stressor data (2008 and 2013). Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity. doi:10.5063/F1S180FS. - Sea level rise - just 2013. Sea level rise 2013https://knb.ecoinformatics.org/#view/doi:10.5063/F1S180FS
Driver of changeSea surface temperatureBenjamin Halpern, Melanie Frazier, John Potapenko, Kenneth Casey,Kellee Koenig et al. 2015. Cumulative human impacts: raw stressor data (2008 and 2013). Knowledge Network for Biocomplexity. doi:10.5063/F1S180FS., Difference in sea surface temperature between 2008 and 2013https://knb.ecoinformatics.org/#view/doi:10.5063/F1S180FS
Natural capital assetSoils and sedimentsGlobal Assessment of Human-induced Soil Degradation (GLASOD) - ISRIC, 1990The GLASOD project (1987-1990), carried out for UNEP, has produced a world map of human-induced soil degradation. Data were compiled in cooperation with a large number of soil scientists throughout the world, using uniform Guidelines and international correlation. The status of soil degradation was mapped within loosely defined physiographic units (polygons), based on expert judgement.http://data.isric.org/geonetwork/srv/eng/catalog.search#/metadata/9e84c15e-cb46-45e2-9126-1ca38bd5cd22
Natural capital assetSpeciesGlobal 1-degree Maps of Forest Area, Carbon Stocks, and Biomass, 1950-2010, Forest Biomass (megatonnes)This data set provides forest biomass data at 1-degree resolution for the period 1950-2010. The data set is based on a compilation of forest area and growing stock data reported in international assessments performed by FAO,MCPFE (now Forest Europe), and UNECE. Data of different assessments are to the extent possible harmonized to reflect both forest area and other wooded land, to be comparable between countries and assessments.https://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1296
Natural capital assetSpeciesIUCN Red List Species Range RarityA measure which accounts for the proportion of a species’ global range occurring within a grid cell. High scores occur in cells where species richness is high and/or cells contain large proportions of species ranges.https://www.ibat-alliance.org
Natural capital assetSpeciesLivestock Geo Wiki - ILRILivestock density using livestock unitshttps://livestock.geo-wiki.org/home-2/
Driver of changeStormsGlobal Storm Surge data from 2015The Global Peak Storm Surge Map provides the location and height of more than 700 storm surges since 1880. Here is a list of the number of surges for each ocean basin, as of February, 2015http://surge.srcc.lsu.edu/data.html
Driver of changeVolcanoesVolcanoes of the World - SmithsonianVolcanoes of the World is a database describing the physical characteristics of Holocene volcanoes and their eruptions.http://volcano.si.edu/
Natural capital assetWaterAqueduct Global Maps 2.1 Inter-annual variabilityInter-annual variability measures the variation in water supply from year-to-year.https://www.wri.org/sites/default/files/Aqueduct_Global_Maps_2.1.pdf
Natural capital assetWaterWater quality for selected watersheds and lakesThe data are presented by watershed (drainage basin). The 82 watersheds represent major world rivers, or smaller rivers that have regional, significance. Water quality data are strongly site dependant, and results must therefore be carefully assessed, especially when a watershed is characterized from a limited number of sampling points in time or space. Major world lakes have essentially two types of origin: one type is tectonic and includes the Caspian, Aral, Victoria, Baikal, Tanganyika, and Malawi lakes. The second type is of glacial origin such as the, Laurentian Great Lakes of North America, Ladoga, Vanern, Great Slave, and Great Bear lakes. The Laurentian, Great Lakes of North America and Lake Baikal in Russia each contain approximately 20% of the world's surface freshwater. Saline lakes (TDS greater than 3 g L-1) have no outlets and are found in endorheic regions. Soft water lakes are generally of the Ca++ - HCO3- type which dominates in most rivers. A few lakes, mostly fed by direct rain inputs, may have very low solute content (Tahoe, Crater Lakes in Western USA). Saline lakes may have very peculiar ionic composition (Na+ - HCO3-; Ca++ - SO4--; Mg++ - SO4--; Na+ - Cl-) depending on crystallization of minerals during evaporation and on the chemical composition of their tributaries.http://geodata.grid.unep.ch/results.php
Driver of changeWater abstractionAqueduct Global Maps 2.1 Baseline water stressBaseline water stress measures the ratio of total annual water withdrawals to total available annual renewable supply, accounting for, upstream consumptive use. Higher values indicate more competition among users.http://www.wri.org/resources/data-sets/aqueduct-global-maps-21-data]
Driver of changeWater abstractionAqueduct Global Maps 2.1 Ground water stressGroundwater stress measures the relative ratio of groundwater withdrawal to recharge rate. Values above one indicate where unsustainable groundwater consumption could affect groundwater availability and groundwater-dependent ecosystems.http://www.wri.org/resources/data-sets/aqueduct-global-maps-21-data
Driver of changeWeather conditionsMerraClim BIO4 (temperature seasonality) and BIO15 (precipitation seasonality) max for 2000s and max for 1980s 2.5 arc-min resolutionChange in precipitation seasonality from 1980s, to 2000shttps://datadryad.org//resource/doi:10.5061/dryad.s2v82
Driver of changeWeather conditionsMerraClim BIO4 (temperature seasonality) and BIO15 (precipitation seasonality) max for 2000s and max for 1980s 2.5 arc-min resolutionChange in temperature seasonality from 1980s to 2000shttps://datadryad.org//resource/doi:10.5061/dryad.s2v82
Driver of changeWeather conditionsTerraClim Wind Speed 1958 to 2017 4km resolutionChange in wind speed from 1958 to 2017.http://www.climatologylab.org/terraclimate.html